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On the other hand, the concept of confidentiality urges you to keep a secret — by which we mean knowledge or information that a person has the right or obligation to conceal Figure 7. For example, if the family of a person who has had an HIV test demands that you give them the result, you must not tell them. You must keep the result confidential unless your client gives you permission to tell their family.

Medical Ethics Explained: Non-Maleficence

The professional obligation to keep a secret arises from the fact that harm will almost certainly follow if the information is revealed. There are three types of secrets:. He does not have any extra income other than the income he gets from farming. While she was having a conversation with her, Almaz, their sixteen-year-old daughter, interrupted the conversation and asked Chaltu to sit and discuss a private health issue with her. Almaz began by telling Chaltu that this is a private issue and that she should not tell this to anyone, even her parents and other family members.

Please listen to me attentively. I saw my last menstruation three months ago. In addition I have a foul-smelling discharge from my birth canal. Now I am asking you to provide me with medicine for my problem and help me with sisterly advice. Chaltu sat sadly for a long period of time without giving her a response, thinking about what to do in her mind. Option 1 is certainly not correct. As a Health Extension Practitioner Chaltu has a duty to help the people in her community.

This is especially the case when their problems are difficult. You will have an opportunity to learn more details about the rights and responsibilities of Health Extension Practitioners in a future study session. Option 2 is probably not a good idea either. Almaz needs to know that she will get support for her problems and will pick her time to tell her parents.

Option 3 is certainly essential because Almaz has problems that need to be sorted out, but which are above the competence of an Health Extension Practitioner. Option 4 is a good idea as well. Supporting Almaz is not just a matter of referring her for help at the health centre. She will need ongoing help and needs to know that her Health Extension Practitioner is willing to offer this support in a comforting and confidential manner. Case Study 7. It also raises a number of issues about autonomy and informed consent which you will learn about next.


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Autonomy is another ethical principle that you may already be aware of, but not know by that name. For example, in Case Study 7. However, there are conditions in which that personal choice or autonomy may be restricted because of concern for the wellbeing of the community. For instance, if a communicable disease, such as tuberculosis, is diagnosed, clients can be required to take prescribed medication and may have to be isolated to prevent the spread of the infectious agent to others.

Informed consent means that each person who has any sort of procedure done to them in a healthcare context should give their approval for that procedure to be done to them. In order to be fully informed, it is the duty of the healthcare worker to tell the person exactly what the procedure will involve as well as the things that might happen if the procedure is not carried out. In Case Study 7. There is an ethical obligation on Chaltu, her Health Extension Practitioner, to explain to Almaz what will happen at the health centre, but also the possible consequences if she does not attend.

Which of the following healthcare procedures that might be undertaken by a Health Extension Practitioner require informed consent? Procedures b. The Health Extension Practitioner should explain the procedure to their patient on each occasion and be prepared to answer their questions and concerns. If the patient is under the age of consent, the parents have to give their informed consent.

Constructing a new latrine or supplying ITNs are important parts of the preventive work of every Health Extension Practitioner, but do not require such a degree of informed consent. However, even these preventive activities need to be explained so that they will be adopted by members of the community. Informed consent is implied in much of the work that Health Extension Practitioners do.

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In other words if a mother brings her child to the Health Post to be immunized, informed consent is necessary because the Health Extension Practitioner is performing a procedure that has benefits, but may also have side-effects. However, the act of bringing the child for the procedure implies consent, as does attending for a contraceptive injection Figure 7. But Health Extension Practitioners should always explain what they are doing and how it impacts on individuals, their families and the wider community.

In this section you will be able to learn about two important ethical concepts which may be new to you, but which are relevant for your practice. These are called beneficence and nomaleficence. From your own experience of receiving or witnessing health services at community level, can you suggest some examples of health interventions that demonstrate beneficence by health workers?

As you have seen in Case Study 7. Moreover, you cannot always avoid doing harm to a client; for instance, in times when a communicable disease arises in your vicinity, you may have to suggest isolating individuals with the infection against their will to contain the spread of the disease and for the good of the majority.

In Sections 7. In this final section, you will be able to learn about the concept of justice , which is an important concept that will help you during your interaction with individuals, families and communities at large.

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Justice is a complex ethical principle and it entails fairness, equality and impartiality; in other words, it is the obligation to be fair to all people. Most Health Extension Practitioners will understand about justice without necessarily having come across the word itself. The concept of justice will become clearer if you understand the meaning of two categories of justice: distributive justice and social justice.


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Distributive justice means that individuals have the right to be treated equally regardless of ethnic group, gender, culture, age, marital status, medical diagnosis, social standing, economic level, political or religious beliefs, or any other individual characteristics. Everyone should be treated in the same way. Social justice is based on the application of equitable rights to access and participation in all aspects of goods and services provided in a society, regardless of their individual characteristics.

Everyone should have access to the same things that might improve their health. As a Health Extension Practitioner, you will be able to carry out distributive and social justice by enabling the inclusion and empowerment of all people living within your area to exercise their rights Figure 7. You can understand the concept of justice from the examples in Case Study 7.

Example 2: Another Health Extension Practitioner is working in a community which is spread out over a large rural area. Risk factors and dementia P Psychosocial interventions 1 P Alzheimer Nederland — Technology and ehealth P Inclusion of people with dementia P Young onset dementia P Neuronet: Improving data access and the development of predictive models P Acute and hospital care P Home and residential care I P Psychosocial interventions II P Alzheimer Nederland — Dementia Lab P Connecting with minority groups P Meaningful day-time activities and respite P Neuronet: Diagnosis, patient engagement and trials P Legal and ethical issues P Home and residential care II P Training and education of care professionals QOP1.

Beneficence Nursing and Ethics | Husson University

Care and services I QOP2. Societal perspectives I QOP3.

Ethical Dilemmas: An Integrated Approach to Consultation and Problem-Solving

Diagnosis and post-diagnostic support PL2. Technology and e-health PL3. Making our societies more dementia-inclusive PL4. How can research lead to better prevention? Special Symposia PO1. Acute and hospital care PO2. Home and residential care PO3.

bator.regexbyte.com/uploads/greene/1685.php Memory clinics and centres PO4. Needs and experiences of people with dementia and their family caregivers PO5. Palliative care approaches PO6. Unlike a basic anatomy and physiology course designed to teach general anatomical knowledge, clinical anatomy focuses on specific structures and issues that people may encounter in a clinical setting.

Loaded with clear definitions, concise explanations, and plenty of full-color illustrations, Clinical Anatomy For Dummies presents a friendly, unintimidating overview of the material covered in a typical college-level Clinical Anatomy course. Louis Park, Minnesota. Linda Johnson Larsen has written 24 books, many of which have an emphasis on health, and has been a patient advocate for her husband and several family members. Show more. Show less.

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